Labarai

Ƙungiyoyin ƙarfe masu haɗewa don abubuwan more rayuwa na gaba | Duniyar Composites

GFRP yana kawar da haɗarin lalata kuma yana ƙaruwa da ƙarfin ƙarfe mai ƙarfafawa sau huɗu don biyan buƙatun gaba kamar zirga -zirga, birane da matsanancin yanayi. #insidemanufacturing #frprebar #Kaya

Babban aikin GFRP rebar. Kimanin kilomita 11,000 na GFRP rebar ya ƙarfafa tashar kula da ambaliyar ruwa a Jizan, Saudi Arabia, kuma ya sami tsawon shekaru 100. Tushen hoto na duk hotuna: Mateenbar

A duniya, an kai hari kan gine -ginen da ba a taɓa yi ba. Ba wai kawai zirga -zirgar ababen hawa a kan hanyoyi, gadoji da hanyoyin wuce gona da iri sun karu ba, har ma canjin yanayi ya kara tsananta yanayin yanayi, gami da guguwa mai karfi da ruwan sama, wanda ya haifar da ambaliyar ruwa da sauran abubuwan barna. A karkashin irin wannan damuwa, kankare na iya tsagewa. Ta hanyar fallasa abubuwa kamar ruwan gishiri wanda yake lalata ga sandunan ƙarfe, wannan na iya yin ɓarna cikin sauri a cikin wuraren lalata.

Ma'aikatar Sufuri ta Florida (FDOT, Tallahassee, Florida, USA) ta bayyana shafin yanar gizo na Innovation na gine -gine. "Sabuwar hanyar da za a magance wannan babbar matsalar ita ce maye gurbin ƙarfe na ƙarfe da ƙarfe na ƙarfe tare da fiber polymer (FRP)." FDOT ya kasance jagora a cikin amfani da gwajin sandunan ƙarfe na FRP da haɓaka ƙira da ƙa'idodin amfani, kamar Standards da Cibiyar Kankare ta Amurka (ACI a Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA) ta bayar. Kodayake sandunan ƙarfe na ƙarfe galibi ana yin su da fiber gilashi (GFRP ko GRP), samfuran da ke amfani da basalt (BFRP) ko fiber carbon (CFRP) suma an haɓaka su.

Nick Crofts, Shugaba na GFRP rebar Mateenbar (Dubai, UAE da Concord, North Carolina, Amurka) ya ce: "Saboda dogon tarihi da tsada na lalata, a cikin mawuyacin hali, Ba a ƙara ganin Karfe a matsayin zaɓi mai tsada. Babbar mai samar da ayyukan rebar GFRP na duniya. Aikin yana a Jazan, Saudi Arabia, tare da tsawon kilomita 23 da faɗin mita 80. Tashar kula da ambaliyar ruwa ce. Crofts ya ce, kodayake GFRP rebar yana da shekaru 30-40, amma manyan ayyuka kamar tashar ambaliyar Jizan suna tura ta zuwa manyan abubuwan more rayuwa. Wannan haɓaka ya baratar da sabbin tsirran Mateenbar a Saudi Arabia da Amurka

Mateenbar GFRP rebar ya haɓaka ta Pultron Composites (Gisborne, New Zealand). Composites na Pultron majagaba ne kuma ƙwararre kan fasahar pultrusion da ƙirar samfur. Mateenbar yana ba da amsa ga ƙalubalen ƙalubale na kasuwar rebar, wanda ba kawai yana buƙatar babban fitarwa da ƙarancin farashi ba, amma kuma yana buƙatar samfuran masu aikin gine -gine da/ko injiniyoyi su kayyade su. Sabili da haka, Mateenbar ya kafa masana'anta ta farko a cikin 2008, kusa da yuwuwar abokan ciniki da kamfanonin injiniya na aikin a Dubai, Hadaddiyar Daular Larabawa, yankin da aka sani da manyan ayyukan samar da ababen more rayuwa da kuma yin amfani da abubuwan haɗin gwiwa. Pultron ya kasance abokin hulɗar dabarun Mateenbar kuma babban mai ba da fasaha na musamman da haɓaka samfur.

Mataki 1 Ana ciyar da fiber ɗin gilashi a cikin ƙirar pultrusion, kuma ana allura resin yayin aiwatar da rufewar.

A mataki na biyu, tsarin pultrusion zai iya samar da filayen fiber/vinyl ester hadaddun sanduna har zuwa ƙafa 80.

Masana'antar Mattenbar tana amfani da fasahar Pultron ta ci gaba don samar da madaidaitan sandunan ƙarfe da aka zana a cikin manyan abubuwan da ake samarwa ba tare da fitar da mahaɗan kwayoyin halitta (VOC). Crofts ya ce "Muna allurar resin a cikin injin injin ƙarfe na pultrusion kuma muna warkar da shi," in ji Crofts.

Ya kara da cewa: “Rebar samfuri ne na injiniya wanda ke da girman girma fiye da ± 1%.” “Babu wani uzuri don ganin resin a ƙasa ko ƙura a cikin iska. Fiber da ake amfani da ita shine Owens Corning (Ohio, Amurka). Toledo) gilashin ECR mai tsayayya da lalata, wannan resin shine bambancin namu na vinyl ester. Yana haɓaka ƙarfi, ƙarfi da dorewa, kuma ya fi wannan kyau tare da hatimin epoxy Polyester kashin baya a ƙarshen. ”

Daga nan sai a kera sandunan zagaye -zagaye da yawa don samar da bayanan karkace don kankare ya iya ɗaukar nauyin. "Wannan kuma aikin rufewa ne," in ji Crofts. "Yi amfani da kantin kayan masarufi sanye take da Donaldson (Bloomington, Minnesota, USA) tsarin tace iska. Bayan haka, muna lulluɓe da fim ɗin resin don inganta sarrafawa. ” Mateenbar's Tsawon sandar ƙarfe na iya kaiwa zuwa ƙafa 80, kuma ana iya yanke shi zuwa wani tsayi kamar yadda ake buƙata. "Don yawancin abubuwan more rayuwa da ayyukan gine -gine, galibi kuna ganin tsawon ƙafa 40," in ji Crofts.

“Matsakaicin madaidaicin sandarmu na ƙarfe shine inci 0.75, kuma ƙirar ƙirar ƙirar da aka yi daga 11,600-ksi (80-GPa) fiber glass shine 8,700 ksi (60 GPa); saboda haka, abun da ke cikin fiber yana da girma sosai-sama da 80% (ta nauyi). Babu wata hanyar lanƙwasa ta, don haka sandunan mu na GFRP da aka lanƙwasa ana yin su ta amfani da matakai daban -daban da resins da amfani da fasahar mallakar ƙasa. ”

Jizan (wanda kuma aka sani da Jazan) shine babban birnin yankin Jizan. Tana cikin kusurwar kudu maso yammacin Saudi Arabiya, arewacin iyakar Yemen. Saboda kwararar ruwa daga tsaunuka masu kusa, bala'in ambaliyar ruwa na iya faruwa a lokacin ruwan sama mai yawa. An gina wannan magudanar ruwan ruwan sama mai tsawon kilomita 23 don kare babban yankin masana'antu, gami da matatar mai a Saudi Aramco (Tehran, Saudi Arabia).

Kafin cutar ta COVID-19, Saudi Aramco shi ne kamfani mafi girma a duniya dangane da kudaden shiga. Yana kula da duk kasuwancin mai da abubuwan da aka samo asali a cikin Masarautar kuma yana da kashi 10% na duk gine -gine a Saudi Arabia. Crofts ya ce "Saudi Aramco ta fahimci cewa ana kashe babban kaso na kasafin kudinta na shekara -shekara don maye gurbin tsarukan gine -gine." “Yawan gishiri da yashi a yankin da kuma tsananin zafin delta daga rana zuwa dare ya sa siminti ya fashe da sauri. Saudi Aramco ya fara neman wasu sabbin fasahohi. A matsayinsu na memba na ACI, sun ɗauki dabarun nasu daga ma'aunin ƙarfe na FRP da suka tsara kuma suka ɗauka. A matsayin ma'auni ga Saudi Aramco, an yi ƙarin gyare -gyare da haɓakawa. Bayan haka, kamfanin ya buƙaci amfani da sandunan ƙarfe na GFRP a cikin wasu mahalli masu lalata sosai. ”

Saudi Aramco (Saudi Aramco) ya nemi aikin tashar tashar ambaliyar Jizan sannan ya zabi masu samar da rebar GFRP guda uku. Mateenbar ya lashe kashi 50% na kwangilar. "A lokacin shirye -shiryen aikin, mun jira na 'yan watanni," in ji Crofts. “Sannan, ba zato ba tsammani, ana buƙatar duk kayan nan da nan. An rushe masana'antar ta Dubai a cikin mako guda, kuma an samar da ita cikin watanni bakwai. Kusan kilomita 6,000 na GFRP rebar. ”

Mataki na 5 Sanya sandunan ƙarfe gwargwadon zane -zane, kuma yi amfani da sassan bututu masu zagaye don tallafa musu a tsayin da ya dace, da gyara su tare da haɗin bakin karfe.

Bayan isar da shi, dan kwangilar aikin Al Yamama Group (Dammam, Saudi Arabia) ya sanya sandunan ƙarfe. "Muna tsammanin muna buƙatar bayar da taimako da yawa yayin aikin shigarwa, amma ba lallai bane," in ji Crofts. "Sun gano cewa shigarwa yana da sauri fiye da ƙarfe ƙarfe." Rearfin GRFP yana ɗaukar nauyin 25% kawai na rebar ƙarfe, don haka yana iya ɗaukar tsawon tsayi tare da ƙarancin mutane kuma yana da sauƙin motsi da matsayi. Ya kara da cewa: "Hakanan akwai bukatar karancin bututun sanyawa." "Ana amfani da waɗannan sassan bututu masu zagaye don tallafawa ƙarfe daidai daidai a cikin kankare."

Bayan sanya sandar karfe, daure shi da waya ta bakin karfe sannan ku duba, sannan ku shirya zuba masa siminti. Crofts ya yi nuni da cewa ƙungiyar shigowar rebar ta yi sauri sosai wanda a zahiri sun kasance kilomita ɗaya a ƙarƙashin tashar mai faɗin mita 40-80 kafin su fahimci cewa aikin kwararar da kankare ba zai iya ci gaba ba. Ya kara da cewa "Don haka suka tsaya suka bar siminti ya kama." “Wannan yana da mahimmanci domin idan aka yi ruwan sama sosai, ambaliyar za ta cika kogin da yashi. Wannan ya faru sau biyu, yana haifar da jinkiri, amma kuma yana nuna mahimmancin magudanar magudanar ruwa. ”

Bayan an zuba siminti a saman sandunan ƙarfe, ƙungiyar shigarwa za ta dunƙule kuma ta matsa don cire kumfa na iska, sannan ta ƙarfafa a cikin 'yan kwanaki da makonni masu zuwa. "A cikin waɗannan matakan, babu wani bambanci tsakanin GFRP da rebar," in ji Crofts. "Mun kammala samar da rebar a cikin Janairu 2020, kuma an kammala tashar."

Tashar ruwan kogin kankare da aka kammala a Jizan zai nisanta ruwan ambaliya daga hanyoyi da wuraren samar da masana'antu. Tushen hoto: Kungiyar Al Yamama

Crofts ya yi nuni da cewa GFRP rebar ba madaidaicin madadin ƙarfe ba ne. “GFRP rebar da rebar karfe suna da kaddarori daban -daban. Dole ne a haɗa waɗannan bambance -bambancen a cikin ƙira. Sabili da haka, kodayake ACI 318 ƙirar ƙarfe da aka ƙarfafa ƙarfe yawanci ana amfani da shi, wannan bai shafi GFRP rebar ba, wanda ya dogara da jagororin ƙira na ACI 440. Misali, GFRP rebar yana da ƙarfi mafi ƙarfi fiye da ƙarfe amma ƙananan ƙirar ƙirar. Hakanan yana da na roba a wurin gazawa. ” Crofts ya yi nuni da cewa a cikin ƙirar ƙirar ƙarfe, yawancin rebars galibi ana ƙaddara su ta ƙarfin ƙarfi. Koyaya, don GFRP, modulus yawanci shine abin da ke ƙayyade adadin ƙarfafawa da ake buƙata. Haɗuwa da wannan buƙatun galibi yana haifar da tsarin da ya wuce ƙimar ƙarfi na ƙarshe. Hakanan yana iya tabbatar da cewa yanayin rashin nasara ya bayyana a cikin tsarin rebar na GFRP.

Wani abin dubawa shine ƙirƙirar lanƙwasa da siffa. Crofts ya nuna cewa rabon sandunan ƙarfe masu lanƙwasa zuwa sandunan ƙarfe masu madaidaiciya a cikin aikin sun kai kusan 30%. Yin amfani da sandunan ƙarfe, wannan masana'anta galibi ana yin ta ne a wurin. Ya yi bayanin: "Ana samar da sandar a kwance a masana'antar muhalli mai sarrafawa kuma ana iya isar da ita kai tsaye zuwa wurin ba tare da matakan matsakaitan masana'antu ba." “Daga mahangar samar da kayayyaki, wannan na iya zama kalubale saboda bukatar tana cikin mako guda. Mun gano cewa sassauci da samun masana'antu a yanki ɗaya suna da mahimmanci. "

Crofts ya ce: “Idan aka lissafta da dala a kowace fam, farashin GFRP rebar ya ninka na karfe sau 3-4, saboda yawan samfuran mu kwata ne na wannan. Nau'in ma'aunin da ya dace shine daloli da ƙafa ɗaya, saboda a zahiri an kayyade shi kuma an saya Rebar ƙaramin sashi ne na ƙarar kankare. Lokacin da kuka auna ƙimar sa ta ƙarar, GFRP rebar yana da gasa-gasa tare da ƙarfe. ”

"Jizan shine babban aiki na farko wanda baya bada izinin amfani da karfe," in ji Crofts. “Suna da ƙungiya don tsara tsarin da ake buƙata tare da rayuwar sabis fiye da shekaru 100. Yayin da buƙatu ke ƙaruwa, da yawa masu kera rebar GFRP suna neman wuraren samarwa a Saudi Arabia. ” Mateenbar kuma yana gina sabuwar masana'anta a can, kuma Sabuwar shuka a Concord, North Carolina, Amurka, tana hidimar Arewacin Amurka, wanda shine kasuwa na biyu mafi girma bayan Gabas ta Tsakiya. Duk sabbin kamfanonin biyu suna amfani da fasahar Pultron ta ci gaban fasaha, wanda ke rufe yankin murabba'in murabba'in 100,000, kuma tsirrai ne na zamani. Za a ba da kayan aikin duka a watan Oktoba 2020, kuma ana sa ran fara aikin a farkon 2021.

Yayin da buƙatun sake buɗe GFRP a Gabas ta Tsakiya ke ƙaruwa, kasuwar Arewacin Amurka ta ci gaba da girma. Croft ya ce: "A halin yanzu, mafi girman aikace -aikacen GFRP rebar a Arewacin Amurka shine bakin teku ko bakin teku mai ruwan teku da gadoji." "Duk da haka, DOT da masu kadarorin yanzu suna neman haɓaka ƙimar a duk tsawon rayuwar tsarin [CW ya yarda, Dubi" Matsayin haɓaka kayan haɗin gwiwa a cikin abubuwan more rayuwa "], wanda ya haɗa da rage buƙatar kulawa da kafa dogon lokaci da dorewar ababen more rayuwa. Injiniyoyi masu ba da shawara da masu amfani da ƙarshen suna ganin ƙimar fasahar rebar GFRP, kuma masu kera rebar na GFRP suna haɗin gwiwa kan ƙimar inganci da ƙa'idodi. Hakanan akwai wasu manyan masu amfani, kamar FDOT, waɗanda ke haɓaka fasaha da taimakawa wasu DOTs, waɗanda suka taimaka yada ilimi. ”

Crofts ya yi nuni da cewa kwanan nan FDOT ta ɗauki bakuncin gidan yanar gizo akan ƙirar kankare na GFRP tare da mahalarta 200. A wani gidan yanar gizo, Dr. Antonio Nanni, ɗaya daga cikin manyan masu bincike a Jami'ar Miami (Miami, Florida, USA) ya ce: "FRP rebar a shirye." Crofts ya ce an cimma wannan. tabbatar. "Aikin yanzu shine bari ƙarin kamfanoni su tantance shi kuma su bar masu kwangila suyi amfani da shi."

Tsarin da aka samar ta hanyar ci gaba da jujjuyawar matsi shine 30% mafi sauƙi fiye da aluminum, kuma farashin Airbus da Boeing yayi yawa.

Kayayyakin daban -daban na CIPP suna ba da damar gyara bututun da ke ƙarƙashin ƙasa don ruwan sha da ruwan sha maimakon haƙawa da sauyawa.

Abubuwan haɗin thermoplastic waɗanda za a iya samarwa da yawa za su sami sabbin hannun jarin kasuwa a masana'antar aerospace.


Lokacin aikawa: Jun-15-2021

Babban aikace -aikace

An ba da manyan hanyoyin amfani da waya ta dashang a ƙasa